I have 2 main areas of research, clinical pathology and veterinary education.

Clinical Pathology

My research in clinical pathology focuses primarily on hematology, cytology, and case reports. I enjoy supervising clinical pathology graduate students and I often collaborate with fellow clinical and anatomic pathologists.

Select publications

Wong SW, Ravanbakhsh A, Sayi S, Fernandez NJ. What is your Diagnosis? [Soft tissue mineralization in a cat]. Vet Clin Pathol. 2023;52(S2):131-133. 

Wong SW, Fernandez NJ, Cosford K, Carr A. What is your Diagnosis? [Septic peritonitis, lymphadenitis and lymph node abscesses in a dog]. Vet Clin Pathol. 2022;51(2):276-278. 

Fernandez NJ, Gilroy CV, Wagg CR, Kwong GPS, Roy MF. Inter- and intra-rater agreement in the detection of band neutrophils and toxic change in horses. Vet Clin Pathol. 2019;48(4):668-676. doi: 10.1111/vcp.12811

Fernandez NJ & Roy MF. Do plasma protein: fibrinogen ratios in horses provide additional information compared to fibrinogen concentration alone? Can Vet J. 2019;60(6):625-629.

Lambert JL, Fernandez NJ, Roy MF. Association of presence of band cells and toxic neutrophils with systemic inflammatory response syndrome and outcome in horses with acute disease. J Vet Internal Med. 2016;30:1284-1292.

Munasinghe LI, Kidney BA, MacDonald-Dickinson V, Larson VS, Jackson ML, Fernandez NJ. Evaluation of lymph node aspirates at diagnosis and relapse in dogs with high-grade multicentric lymphoma and comparison with survival time. Vet Clin Pathol. 2015;44(2):310-319.

Fernandez NJ, Davies JL, Diaz J, Spotswood T. Cerebrospinal fluid from a dog [Neurolymphomatosis]. Vet Clin Pathol. 2013;42(2):244-245.

Fernandez NJ, Hecker KG, Gilroy CV, Warren AL, Léguillette R. Reliability of 400 cell and 5 field leukocyte differential counts in equine bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Vet Clin Pathol. 2013;42(1):92-98.

Wasko AJ, Barkema HW, Nicol J, Fernandez N, Logie N, Léguillette R. Evaluation of a risk-screening questionnaire to detect equine lung inflammation: results of a large field study. Equine Vet J. 2011;43(2):145-152.

Fernandez NJ, Clark EG, Larson VS. Ventral neck mass in a dog [Thyroid carcinosarcoma]. Vet Clin Pathol. 2008;37(4):447-451.

Fernandez NJ & Kidney BA. Alkaline phosphatase: Beyond the liver. Vet Clin Pathol. 2007;36(3):223-233.

Fernandez NJ, West KH, Jackson ML, Kidney BA. Immunohistochemical and histochemical stains for the diagnosis of canine cutaneous round cell tumors. Vet Pathol. 2005;42:437-445.

Veterinary Education

My research in veterinary education focuses on how to improve clinical pathology teaching, primarily through developing observational skills and tolerance of ambiguity. I am also the coordinator of Innovation in Veterinary Education Canada (, a group that brings together veterinary educators from across the country.

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Fernandez NJ, Burgess H, Dickinson RM, Meachem M. Evaluation and comparison of tolerance of ambiguity in veterinary clinical and anatomic pathology professionals and trainees. J Vet Med Educ. 2024; Advance access: doi:10.3138/jvme-2023-0166

Fernandez NJ, Fischer M, Dickinson RM, Burgess H, Meachem M, Elwood BW, Warren AL. Comparison of fine arts- and pathology-based observational skills training for veterinary students learning cytology. J Vet Med Educ. 2022;49(3):393-406. doi:10.3138/jvme-2020-0096. 

Fernandez NJ, Dickinson RM, Burgess H, Meachem M. Tolerance of ambiguity in veterinary students at the beginning and end of a second-year clinical pathology course. J Vet Med Educ. 2021;48(6):698-705. doi:10.3138/jvme-2020-0032.

Fernandez NJ, Fischer M, Burgess H, Elwood BW, Dickinson RM, Meachem M, Warren AL. Using fine arts-based training to develop observational skills in veterinary students learning cytology: a pilot study. J Vet Med Educ. 2021;48(3):295-300. doi: 10.3138/jvme.2019-0069.

Fernandez NJ, Wagg CR, Warren AL. Changes in student perceptions and study strategies over time in a veterinary clinical pathology course using case-based instruction. J Vet Med Educ. 2018;45(4):544-555.

Warren A, Donnon T, Wagg C, Priest H, Fernandez NJ. Quantifying novice and expert differences in visual diagnostic reasoning in veterinary pathology using eye-tracking technology. J Vet Med Educ. 2018;45(3):295-306.